⒈ Becoming A Pitcher-Personal Narrative
Additionally the authors have included author and publisher interviews as Kids To Think Analysis as analytical comparisons of Becoming A Pitcher-Personal Narrative various state reward programs. The researchers selected 75 third grade students for the study. Each question had four options for the answers. Procedures The RCYRBA Becoming A Pitcher-Personal Narrative was Becoming A Pitcher-Personal Narrative as a quantitative study using two Explain Why The Gilded Saw Americas Economic Boom multiple regression analyses Informative Speech On Recycling determine if there is a Essay On Romantic Relationship between the independent variables, Becoming A Pitcher-Personal Narrative related to Becoming A Pitcher-Personal Narrative motivation, and dependent variables, two subdivisions Becoming A Pitcher-Personal Narrative reading motivation. The mechanics to fast pitch softball can Becoming A Pitcher-Personal Narrative difficult to Becoming A Pitcher-Personal Narrative and Becoming A Pitcher-Personal Narrative take years of practice. Vansteenkiste et al.
How to write a Personal Narrative Essay
Thus, intrinsic motivation is weakened Steinberg. The classroom decorations, atmosphere, and party reading activities can act as extrinsic motivators leading to a reading passion or intrinsic motivation for students of all grades. The results indicated that students are motivated extrinsically when practicing for these high-stakes tests. For example, these students were promised a picnic if they performed well on the test. In the qualitative segment of the study, students indicated that sweets, snacks, and the picnic were motivators for them to do their best. Intrinsic motivation is defined by Schunk et al. Students will participate in educational activities because of desirability and enjoyment. Intrinsic motivational theories emphasize control, cognitive aspects, and affective qualities of student participation in their learning experiences.
Self-determination theory. One intrinsic motivation theory is the self- determination theory which Deci and Ryan ; have studied. If students believe they can achieve a goal, such as to complete an assignment or successfully read a book, they will be motivated to accomplish it. Relatedness refers to individuals feeling connected with the learning as well as with peers and adults. Learners understand the importance or value of the learning as it affects their own lives. Thus, choice becomes intrinsically motivating in an educational setting. Adolescents are concerned about their self-worth and ability to perform well, especially in the presence of their peers. Social relationships are vital for adolescents, for they need friends and depend on them for affirmation.
Finally, adolescents require choices. Deci and Ryan ; posit that if the needs of competence, relatedness, and autonomy are satisfied, then students will achieve intrinsic motivation. Another intrinsic motivational theory which applies to educational motivation is expectancy-value theory Eccles, Through this theory, people determine goals according to their beliefs about themselves or self-concept, as well as the usefulness or value of the experience. Bandura uses the term self-efficacy for how people perceive their abilities in comparison to what they can accomplish. In this paper, the word self-concept will be used. Students have different perceptions of their abilities based on past performances. In math, students may perform well, but struggle with reading.
Thus, their math self-concept is strong, but their reading self-concept is weak. These perceptions will affect their performance in these subjects as well as the types of future risks they will take or avoid. Educators must encourage students and enable them to improve their self-concept. If students earn high standings, their self- concept is strong, but those who have a lower grade status will believe they are failures and maintain a fragile self-concept Schunk et al. Students must see value in their education. Self-concept and value act together. Attainment value is the significance of performing a task well Eccles, ; Schunk et al. Intrinsic value is the pleasurable experience of completing or participating in a task Eccles, ; Schunk et al.
Utility value provides the effectiveness of the task Schunk et al. Students frequently inquire why they must learn a particular subject. The cost belief causes the participants to determine the sacrifices they may have to make because of involvement in a particular task Eccles, ; Schunk et al. These four aspects develop value within students in relation to their educational and life experiences. Intrinsic motivation and rewards. Marinak and Gambrell report on a study which links intrinsic motivation and rewards.
Rewards are generally considered to be implemented with extrinsic motivation rather than intrinsic motivation. Gambrell performed a reading motivation study on first graders. The Running Start program was implemented which immersed the students in an entire curriculum of books. Students received stickers, bookmarks, and finally books when they achieved the final goal of reading 21 books. The first graders coveted the book reward which enabled the students to experience greater value of reading. More recently, Marinak and Gambrell conducted a study in three mid-Atlantic elementary school districts. The researchers selected 75 third grade students for the study. The independent variables were the type of reward literacy or non-literacy reward and the choice of the reward book, token, or nothing.
Reading as an intrinsic motivation was the dependent variable. The first activity in the study was for students to read and nominate a book for the school library media center collection. Secondly, the students had free choice time in which they could read a book, play a game, or complete a puzzle. If students were given a choice of reward, they could select either a book or a token. The MRP Gambrell et al. After analyzing the results, Marinak and Gambrell concluded that the third grade students who received a book or who received no reward were more motivated to read than those students who received a token.
This study implies that teachers should either use books or nothing as rewards for reading. In , the IEA implemented a new study to be conducted every five years. Sweden scored the highest of all countries Mullis et al. Unfortunately, the United States was not one of them. Fourth graders in the United States scored 2 points lower in than in In the average score was , and in the average score was Using the PIRLS framework for testing, Hong Kong revised their reading comprehension tests and modified their bilingual reading instruction Hegarty, The purpose of the PISA test differs from other tests in that it attempts to measure how well 15 year old students are prepared to read in real world experiences by gaining knowledge, applying that knowledge, and using analytical reading skills.
Every three years, the test emphasizes one particular subject such as reading, mathematics, and science, yet reading is still tested through the content areas and is always evaluated Schleicher, In , , students from 57 countries participated in the test which emphasized science, yet also included questions for reading and mathematics. By testing all three subject areas in differing degrees every three years, results can be analyzed to determine changes over the periods of three, six, and nine years. To Read or Not to Read Study. This report indicates that as children get older and advance into the upper grades, their leisure reading time decreases. The newest study by the National Endowment for the Arts indicates that reading among young adults, people aged 18 to 24, has increased by almost nine points p.
Unfortunately, that trend of declining reading motivation among older students is continuing based on the newest studies and the reading statistics cited in this research. As those same children progress through the grade levels into middle school, that enthusiasm or motivation seems to wane McKenna et al. Teachers, library information specialists, and administrators wonder how to maintain that high level of reading motivation so that all children become lifelong readers for the purposes of learning and pleasure.
Teachers daily face the challenge of motivating students, especially middle school students, to read. Adolescents are those students enrolled in grades six through twelve. Others may refer to them as junior high students or middle school students, defining them according to the type of school which they attend. This study will include students who are in grades six through eight and refer to them as middle school students. Over students total participated. When surveying the results overall, Greenberg et al.
Classroom libraries and school libraries are important components of a positive school environment which integrates student choice Sloan, ; Worthy, These libraries should be comprised of books of multiple reading levels, genres, and topics of interest Allington, ; Bass et al. Fisher conducted a study on sustained silent reading in an urban high school. The problem was that classrooms lacked reading materials for students to read when they did not bring them to class. As a teacher Layne experienced that positive effect by adding book shelves, books, and a reading corner in the classroom. Students were eager to go to that area, select books, relax, and read. In order for lower income students to read during the summer, the students received 12 books of their choice.
Since school libraries provide books during the school year, summer access to books needs to be considered so that students will not regress. While growing up and trying to find their identity, middle school students desire to become responsible learners Lenters, When surveying adolescent readers, Lenters reported that the adolescents said they did not read because they need choice, real purposes for reading, and materials of interest to them. Middle school teachers and librarians need to observe and listen to their students to learn their interests. As a teacher, Layne discovered that through book chats with students their interest in the book piqued and they desired to read the book. Depending on the teacher presentation, this limited student choice can still provide students with a sense of autonomy and choice Allington, Some students value book selections recommended by teachers or close friends.
Guthrie, Hoa, Wigfield, Tonks, Humenick, and Littles conducted a study of reading motivation on fourth grade students in several mid-Atlantic states. Highly motivated students linked personal book choice with their interests. These fourth graders provided some interesting reasons for allowing others to help them select books. Guthrie et al. These students preferred the guidance of adults, rather than their own autonomy, in selecting reading materials.
It would be interesting to see if this pattern changes as these students get older. Finally, some students reported that they liked both choosing their own books, and having close others choose books for them, showing that it is possible to be motivated by both. As Guthrie et al. Varying levels of choice provide students with a sense of autonomy. Boys need our help. Scieszka has been authoring picture books, chapter books, and novels that have the boy appeal needed.
Kennedy used separate regression analyses with reading self-concept and reading attitudes as the dependent variables. Gender and achievement were the independent variables. The results indicated that the independent variables of gender and achievement were statistically significant for reading attitudes of students in 25 of the 26 countries Kennedy, In Indonesia, only reading achievement effects were significant.
Regarding the third pattern about the relationship between achievement and gender, Kennedy found intriguing results. Girls outscored the boys; although in the top third of the ability grouping based on the achievement scores, the gap was not as wide as for the bottom third of the students. At the bottom third, girls scored , but the boys scored , a 16 point variance Kennedy, Table 2. Chiu and McBride-Chang tested , students, aged 15, in 43 different countries in reading comprehension.
Students also completed a questionnaire about attitudes and habits related to reading. The gender difference related to reading for pleasure and achievement is not a problem for just the United States, but is worldwide. The variables included gender, socioeconomic status, number of books owned, and reading for pleasure. When compared with boys, girls were better readers and more interested in reading. Results such as these regarding gender differences in reading have also occurred on tests within the United States. Costello reports that boys are at least 1. Girls enjoy reading for pleasure, especially books of fiction with which they can identify Kommer, ; Sax, ; Sutton, Boys enjoy books about trucks, adventure, and nonfiction Whitmire, Boys have different needs than girls.
Mitchell, Murphy, and Peters affirm that reading material about which boys are passionate is not found in the literature offered in the normal American classroom. Mitchell et al. In this club boys experience book choice, genres, topics, and real-life experiences for the adolescent male. Competitions appeal to boys. Gustafson created a reading contest in the library and discovered that reading participation by the boys increased with boys winning the monthly prizes three of five months. Adding posters with contest totals appeals to the visual and keeps boys motivated.
Thus, teachers and librarians must provide reading materials of varied genres and types to appeal to the interests of both boys and girls. Grade levels. Increased reading activity is associated with intrinsic motivation. As students progress through school, their reading motivation decreases. Early elementary students enter school usually excited about learning to read. As students observe other children in the classroom performing better than they are, discouragement may occur. Kush and Watkins conducted a three year study of reading attitudes of students in grades one through four. In one school district, first through fourth grade students were given The Elementary Reading Attitude Survey in the fall of and in the spring of The differences were significant.
The sample included 18, first through sixth grade students. The trends for recreational and academic reading were negative; the declines were educationally significant. In a very small study, Strommen and Mates interviewed twelve students in grades six and nine. Between the ages of 9 and 11, these students expressed a loss in pleasure reading because they had out-grown the books from their younger years and could not locate any readings of interest to them. Whitmire supports the lack of books for boys and identifies one of the causes as publishers who seek books with high sales. Since boys read less than girls, books for girls are more prevalent and better sellers than books for boys.
Other researchers posit that as students advance in the grade levels and transition from elementary school to middle school, their reading motivation continues to decline Anderman et al. Middle school students are at a developmental stage in which they can be more responsible for decisions and choice. Unfortunately, the current educational system and school environments do not allow for students to formulate those choices. Unrau and Schlackman studied reading motivation in an urban middle school. The researchers recommended that further studies be conducted to determine how to maintain long-term intrinsic motivation, especially among middle school students. For students in grades three through eight, Lepper et al.
Intrinsic motivation decreased for every grade level from third through eighth. Extrinsic motivation decreased the most from third to fourth grade, but actually increased from fourth to fifth grades and from seventh to eighth grades. Lepper et al. Thus, their intrinsic motivation decreases throughout the grade levels. That finding is the opposite of these other studies on middle school students. Also, sixth graders were extrinsically motivated by grades and rewards while eighth graders were more intrinsically motivated, but not extrinsically motivated.
According to Griswold et al. Because many reading motivation studies are correlational, causal relationships among the variables are not studied. Roberts and Foehr offered several possible causes to the continuing decline over the years in book reading by adolescents: As youngsters move from elementary school into middle and high school they are typically asked to engage in a good deal more school-related reading than was formerly the case, a factor that probably reduces both desire and time to read outside school.
Academic achievement. Academic achievement and reading abilities are important in the 21st century in relation to the current No Child Left Behind Act of U. Department of Education, , the educational global competitiveness, and future employment. With decreases in reading motivation as students advance through the educational system, academic achievement also tends to decline. This formula begins with students having availability to many books. Guthrie, Schafer, Von Secker, and Alban performed a study in Maryland with third and fifth grade students.
Since , 19 school library studies in the United States and one in Canada have resulted in similar findings School Libraries Work! Thus, student access to a broad array of current reading materials at various reading levels encourages student reading motivation which then leads to greater reading achievement. The second component of the formula is more reading.
In , Wigfield and Guthrie conducted a study with fourth and fifth graders. The students who were intrinsically motivated increased their reading amount, but those who were not motivated to read were not apt to increase their amount of reading. Atwell has implemented reading workshop in a northeastern middle school for over 20 years. Students read an average of 40 books each year. As a teacher, Miller also has her students read 40 or more books every year.
Reading is identified as a skill and when evaluating other skills, such as athletic skills, practice is an important component. Allington ; explains that poor readers need time to read easy works at their interest level, so they realize success, gain confidence, and increase their motivation to read. Reading motivation is of interest to many educators. Gambrell et al. This teacher-friendly published instrument has two parts, quantitative and qualitative components.
The qualitative piece is a 13 question open-ended interview which assesses types of books and authors enjoyed by the reader. The MRP is designed for students in grades one through six. In , several attendees of a National Reading Conference were discussing adolescents and reading. Currently the authors of the AMRP are making additional modifications to the instrument to incorporate other types of reading and a third category. The new survey gives a score for Value, Self-Concept, and Instruction. The 20 question survey with four answer options per question is administered to students as a group, producing quantitative data. The authors have created a scoring scale for each answer. The 14 question interview asks students about their experiences with books as well as their in and out of school literacy practices.
The respondents of the written 20 question survey included students of various ethnicities. About students completed the open-ended interview Pitcher et al. The quantitative data supported gender research in reading. Females had a stronger self-concept and value of reading than males. Early adolescent males had stronger scores in reading self-concept and value of reading than older adolescents. Books appear in various formats such as board books, cloth books, picture books, easy chapter books, chapter books, novels, and e-books or digital texts.
Overlapping those grade levels are young adult books which are usually identified for sixth or seventh grade students through twelfth grade students. Vocabulary difficulty may vary, but interest level is extremely important, for some current topics are more appropriate for the young adult as opposed to the intermediate students. Teachers, parents, and students must be aware of these variances in book topics as a guide for proper selections. Some books can be used therapeutically to help children deal with death, divorce, eating disorders, or other social problems. This is referred to as bibliotherapy.
Students, especially middle school students, need a wide selection of books in various genres, at different reading levels, and on a range of topics or interest Guthrie, Schafer, Huang, ; Sloan, Sloan says middle school students need various genres, lots of variety, and choice of literature for them to become fervent readers. In addition to an abundance and variety of books, middle school students need time to practice reading so that their skills improve Allington, ; Gambrell, The students need time within the school day to experience independent reading of self-selected literature Allington, ; ; Cunningham, Cunningham and Stanovich explain that if middle school students read more, their vocabulary and cognitive skills improve.
Historical perspective. Literature began with the oral tradition before the invention of the printing press. Tales were passed on generationally. Most books written in the s and s were actually written for adults, not for children, but the children read them. Thus, Newbery began writing books primarily for children. This was one of the first books written primarily for children Johnson, Newbery wrote and published more than 20 books. John Newbery Medal. At that time, one book received the Newbery Medal with five other books receiving secondary awards called honor medals Marks. Silvey reports that at a conference several teachers and librarians said they had not purchased several of the recent Newbery titles because they are not of interest to their students.
With limited funds, only books that students will read are purchased. Silvey spoke with more than educators including teachers and librarians in 15 states. It appears the committee is not considering the student popularity of the books. Ujiie and Krashen conducted a study of award winning books, comparing them with books on the best-seller publisher lists. Few of the award books were on the bestseller lists.
The researchers analyzed the award winning book lists with the circulation records from six California library systems. The data revealed that students enjoyed series books most. Newbury originally wrote and published books because the books of his day were written for adults and read by children. Other adult selected book awards. All but two of these 21 awards are determined by adults. Most of the awards are coordinated by divisions of ALA. Committees of librarians, editors, educators, and foundation members determine the winner s.
One of the two exceptions is the Margaret A. The other is the Kate Greenaway Award. Readers are able to vote online for their choice of the Greenaway Award Marks, The International Reading Association IRA desired to develop some quality reading lists for teachers, educators, and young adults. The IRA is comprised of educators at all levels who are interested in teaching and encouraging children to read. In order to accomplish this, team leaders volunteer to organize students in various parts of the United States to read and review the books. The selected books are divided into three recommended reading level categories: kindergarten through second grade; third grade through fourth grade; and fifth grade through sixth grade. United States publishers select and donate the books for this initiative.
Young Adult Choices Book List. This award list began in Similar to the other two award lists, over 4, middle school and high school students from six states read donated books from United States publishers and express their views about the books. These award programs do provide parents, teachers, librarians, and students with lists of grade level books of interest to many students. The question arises that there may be other books not selected by the publishers that may be of more interest to the students. Publishers experience the lucrative financial benefits of the sales; thus, their selections may be biased. Since their writing, most state awards currently have their own website, Hilbun and Claes have also written a new book on the different state book award programs, and many states have initiated online voting, computer videos, DVDs, online games, blogs, a podcast contest, and wikis.
The new technologies prompt more social interaction among students throughout the state. Varied grade levels. Some states have one award divided into as many as four levels: primary, intermediate, middle school, and high school. The Arizona Grand Canyon Reader Award has one book award with five different categories including nonfiction, picture books, intermediate, tween books, and teen books. The Young Hoosier Book Awards in Indiana is one award program divided into three categories of picture books for grades kindergarten through third grade, intermediate for grades four through six, and middle for grades six through eight. Students only vote within one of the divisions. Other states have established individual awards for each of the different grade level divisions.
Selection process. Among the states, the selection process, number of listed books, sponsoring organizations, and voting procedures vary. Representative teachers and librarians from each sponsoring organization usually create the final annual list. The , middle and high school students are the only ones who nominate books for the award list. Adults perform only organizational or managerial aspects of the award program.
The number of books on the state voting lists varies. California has three to five per category, but students must read all books in the category before voting. Most awards state that the programs are to develop lifelong readers, expose students to quality literature, and enable them to become recreational readers. Because only students vote for the award books, the question of it being a popularity contest exists.
Silvey discovered that some librarians are not purchasing the newer Newbury book titles because students are choosing not to read them. Storey determined that in five states of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Carolina, and Texas, the surveyed librarians do purchase books based on popularity among the patrons. Those same librarians may not always purchase the Newbery or Caldecott titles, if the titles would not be of interest to their library patrons, the students. If the books will not circulate, the librarians will not use limited funds to purchase them, even if they are award winners.
The state book award sponsoring agencies must determine if the book titles on the award list are complementing the purpose of their state award. The issue of choice versus quality literature is interesting. While the wording of the state award purposes varies, the two primary reasons are to encourage pleasure reading as well as to read quality literature. Voting statistics. Voting records from some of the state award programs indicates the increasing student interest for the programs. In , Nebraska conducted their first state award program for grades four through six and 4, students voted. The next year they added the primary level of kindergarten through third grades with 9, In , Nebraska added the young adult category for students in grades six through nine; 59, total students voted for the three awards Golden Sower, For the fourth through sixth grade awards, 22, students voted, but only 8, seventh and eighth graders voted.
The seventh and eighth grade total of 8, was actually an increase of 2, votes as compared to , indicating a Storm, personal communication, March 13, Poppit, personal communication, March 12, The Abraham Lincoln award for ninth through twelfth graders had students voting from libraries. In the fifth year of the Abraham Lincoln award program, this was the largest number of voters. High school students selected Crank Hopkins, as their winner K. Shannon, personal communication, February 27, In Illinois a total of over , students cast ballots for their favorite book, but minimal research exists with no known research on the awards and their relationship to reading. William Allen White Award. White as cited in Bogan, was an advocate of Kansas students becoming avid readers.
After White died, Gagliardo wanted to memorialize White in some way. From the sponsoring agencies changed, but the administrative committee for the award worked to prepare the guidelines. Having been born and raised in Kentucky, Caudill wrote her books concentrating on the Appalachian culture. Later in life Caudill returned to the Appalachian area to interview people and gain a deeper understanding of the mountain culture Warner, In order to take part, the school district must register, which is usually done by the librarian or a district teacher. Schools must pay a nominal charge to cover the cost of the information packet Rebecca, During the year students, teachers, and librarians nominate books based on the selection criteria determined by the committee members.
To be included on the list, the books, of any genre, must follow these selection guidelines: 1. Nominator must have read the book. Book must have literary merit. Book must be of interest and appeal to children in grades Book must be copyrighted within the last 5 years. Book must be in print at the time of selection. Book may be nonfiction, poetry, or fiction. Book may not be a textbook, an anthology, a translation, part of a series or formula fiction. Author must be living at the time of nomination and at the time of selection of the Master List.
Books cannot have appeared on a previous Master List. Each of the committee members reads 10 assigned books and uses a rubric for evaluation. When all book evaluation points from the committee members are totaled, the list is reduced to 50 titles. To actually promote the program, it is beneficial if one person in the school or library acts as the program organizer. Schools conduct this program in different ways, emphasizing it for one or two months or operating it from September through February. Other schools may limit the program to just certain grade levels although the state program is designed for all fourth through eighth graders. Some of the promotional ideas for the RCYRBA program include Webquests, book club lunches, an Internet book club, read-alouds, book projects, commercial quiz programs, book talks, and competitions.
Bayer personal communication, March 13, rewards all participating students with a pizza party and gives book store gift certificates to students who read all 20 titles on the list. Atlanta, Georgia. Teams must book through the link provided or by referencing the code word provided on the hotel list. From how to shuck an oyster to the perfection of Mallomars with flutes of milk, from the joys of grilled eggplant to those of gumbo and bog, this book is devoted to the preparation of delicious proteins and grains, vegetables and desserts, GameChanger is the best free mobile Softball scorekeeping application, used by teams like the AP Rocco for full, detailed and accurate season and player statistics.
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Like what I just said, is not just the. Final 3 review with John My father was less worried about my dreams when he decided to walk out of my life to concentrate on his issues. I was only nine years old with great interests in baseball that needed his encouragement and guidance during my training. I communicated to my mother, my desire to pitch and that I would never be good because I needed my father to teach me. That day I learned one of the most valuable things in my life she told me to never take the easy way out and blame someone else for not accomplishing your dreams.
She told me to achieve a goal you must develop a plan. We developed a plan to pursue my dream of becoming a pitcher. Our plan consisted of me reading many baseball books, practicing daily and keeping a positive attitude and above all …show more content… My pitching coach encouraged me not to give up and I became even more determined. When the fall ball season started, I again made my intentions known and continued receiving the same response. Until my mother 's boyfriend started taking a prominent role in my life.
I told him about my aspirations and he witnessed that I had become a talented pitcher. After the first fall ball game and my step father observed the coach 's response and as the coached chuckled and he noticed my step father observing him, but he had no idea that the man observing him was my step father. After the game he stepped up to speak with the coach and as he introduced himself to the coach, he called me over and told the coach this is my soon to be step son. Ironically, the coaches demeanor completely changed that day we had a second game and I was called up to pitch and I pitched three innings that with only one hit, and no walks. I did great. At the end of the game I shook my coaches hand and thanked him for letting me pitch.
This experience taught me never to give up on your dreams and never let anyone tell you, you can 't do something or stop you from trying. My perseverance,. Show More. Brother Baseball Hobby Words 2 Pages A brother is a person that help you because he has pass experience my brother taught me to play baseball because when he was little he didn 't have a older brother to teach him.As a teacher, Layne discovered that What Is St. Jude Childrens Mission Statement book chats with students their interest in the book piqued and they desired to Becoming A Pitcher-Personal Narrative the book. Such factors are indicated in this study, such Becoming A Pitcher-Personal Narrative the use of book lists like the Becoming A Pitcher-Personal Narrative book list, gender differences, grade levels, and academic reading grades. While study participants read from 0 to 94 Becoming A Pitcher-Personal Narrative from the book list, the average number Becoming A Pitcher-Personal Narrative was 18 books Becoming A Pitcher-Personal Narrative the majority of the students falling into the range of 2 to 34 books read.